Theory of change that is used by a number of other donors. Its contents are the sole responsibility of ssg advisors, llc dba resonance and do not necessarily reflect the views of usaid or the us government. Theory of change narrative the project is based on the theory that recruitment and retention of newly diagnosed people living with hiv plhiv into care and support groups will reduce the high rate of loss to follow up between the time of diagnosis and the commencement of art. This work is made possible by the generous support of the american people through the. The theory of change approach, with its focus on continuous critical reflection, demands a radical shift towards more and better learning in development thinking and practice. Governments global hunger and food security initiative. This white paper assesses the current state of knowledge on theory of political change through a change lens, paying particular attention to the processes of democratic backsliding.
However, a theory of change approach may be able to create a productive albeit small space for. Ideally, a theory of change explains how change is understood to come about, rather than simply linking activities to expected results with an arrow. An assumption no matter how strongly you believe it to be true is, after all, an assumption. Thus, it can be used to design, monitor and evaluate social change initiatives, including peacebuilding. A theory of change toc of a project intervention describes the processes of change by. For development practitioners, a of chantheory ge may best be understood as a description of the logical causal.
A key task for usaid education in crisis and conflict network eccn is to develop and disseminate guidance and training related to the use of theories of change in education programs designed for crisis and conflictaffected environments. In the toc, the primary challenges indicated are your underlying assumptions. Theories of change tocs in international development programming, with field. Theory of change training curriculum food security and.
A practical tool for action, results and learning what does a theory of change look like. Using theory of change in the development, implementation and. No new tool or approach can in itself address problems of institutional incentives in the sector that block such learning. To end the need for foreign assistance, we must focus on building selfreliance defined as the ability of a country, including the government, civil society, and the private sector, to plan, finance, and. Baseline study of the enhancing resilience and economic growth in somalia program. The theory of change is based on the fundamental logic that a road can provide access to markets as well as allow for the provision of security, which in turn can lead to improved incomes and security for the population of north and south kivu. What is a theory of change approach and why does it matter.
The range of examples represents how different groups have approached their theory of change thinking. Toc theory of change trr office of trade and regulatory reform usaid united states agency for international development. Theory of change defines longterm goals and then maps backward to identify necessary preconditions. Theory of change explains the process of change by outlining causal linkages in an. Agency for international developments usaid office of food for peace ffp funds development activities with an objective to improve and sustain the food and nutrition security of vulnerable populations, with a continued focus on the most food insecure and a renewed emphasis on nutrition security. It is being increasingly used in international development by a. An analysis of theories of change in usaid solicitations for education programs in crisis and conflict affected environments contents 3 abbreviations and acronyms 4 i. It can also be a narrative describing the change you. Theory of change can be a useful strategy and evaluation tool for funders that achieve impact at all these levels. Conservation enterprises using a theory of change approach to synthesize. The theory of change approach an increasingly popular management tool and. Applying a theory of change approach to the evaluation of.
It was prepared by mark langworthy, maryada vallet, stephanie martin, tom bower. This study is made possible by the support of the american people through the united states agency for international development usaid. The context within which the development problem is situated. Theory of change training curriculum usaid advancing. Agency for international development usaid was established on november 3, 1961, following enactment of the foreign assistance act of 1961 faa, p. This curriculum presents one method that does its best to align with the requirements of creating a development hypothesis for development food security activities funded by the u. Crs developed this theory of change to help teams design and implement projects that focus on a more consistent set of. In many developing countries, microenterprises and smallscale enterprises account for the majority of firms and a large share of employment, mainly consisting of small firms with one person working alone or with unpaid family members. It also summarizes data techniques and analyses used, shedding light on the processes and decisions that. A theory of change toc documents the change impact that you are seeking for both accountability and internal awareness of potential organizational challenges. Agency for international development s usaid office of food for peace ffp funds development activities with an objective to improve and sustain the food and nutrition security of vulnerable populations, with a continued focus on the most food insecure and a renewed emphasis on nutrition security. Using results chains to depict theories of change in usaid biodiversity programming. It also summarizes data techniques and analyses used, shedding light on.
As an example, an outcome related to food availability might be improved agricultural production. Since its birth in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the field of comprehensive community initiatives ccis has been struggling to find evaluation strategies and methodologies that. This paper complements the strategic plan by elaborating the broad theory of change that underpins it. Security activities dfsa funded by usaids office of food for peace ffp. A narrative description, usually accompanied by a graphic or visual depiction, of how and why a purpose or result is expected to be achieved in a particular context. Review of the use of theory of change in international development. A results framework rf graphically displays the results usaid intends to achieve over a cdcs period. Theory of change is an outcomesbased approach which applies critical thinking to the design, implementation and evaluation of initiatives and programmes intended to support change in their contexts. Background, operations, and issues congressional research service 1 he u. For example, an organisation may use theories of change as a way to communicate their goals to funders, but also to promote internal learning on programme strategy. Roadmaps usaids visualization tool for performance on each of the 17 selfreliance metrics and assessing a countrys overall progress on the journey to selfreliance. Theory of change is a method and an approach that, in recent years, has been increasingly used for designing and monitoring development interventions and also as a framework for use in evaluations.
United nations population fund unfpa strategic plan. Regardless of whether these changes ultimately, or eventually, lead to regime change, they do degrade citizens rights and their engagement with the state, and both have widespread repercussions for usaids work. An analysis of theories of change in usaid solicitations for. Theories of change and indicator development in conflict management and mitigation 1 introduction this report presents background information and key content related to the usaidsponsored workshop on theories of change indicator development that. Outcomes should be stated as a result and in terms of the desired change. A theory of change approach can sharpen the planning and implementation of an initiative. Toc theory of change usaid united states agency for international development. Mediumlength theoryofchange primer slide presentation. Used during the design phase, it increases the likelihood that stakeholders will have clearly specified the initiatives intended outcomes, the activities that need to be implemented in order to. This white paper assesses the current state of knowledge on theory of political change through a. Lewins threestage model of change2 focuses on the driving forces that facilitate or hinder change, and how those involved in the change agree that the change is necessary, collaborate towards the desired result and. Results frameworks and discuss the relation between usaids. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views, analysis, or policies of iie or usaid, nor does any mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by iie or usaid. This short publication describes crs theory of change related to its agricultural projects.
Support program usaid united states agency for international development. By the end of the session, participants will be able to describe the purposes, elements and process for refining a theory of change toc. One recommended approach is to develop an outcome map, a visual diagram. Theory of change paper, unicef strategic plan, 2018 2021. The program cycle is how policy gets translated into action and how usaid supports countries on their journey to selfreliance. Diverse guidance exists on how to best design and use a theory of change. Our theory of change will form the foundation for our strategic planning beyond 2016. Theory of change training curriculum food security and nutrition. Applying a theory of change approach to the evaluation of comprehensive community initiatives. The theory of change that underlies usaids strategy is revealed through arrows in the diagram that identify causal linkages through which subirs and irs at the bottom help to bring about dos and progress towards the cdcs goal at the top. Usaid eccn education in crisis and conflict network.
It addresses the root causes of hunger and poverty in the developing world to improve global food security and nutrition. Theories of change fulfil a number of different purposes, including strategic planning, communication, accountability and learning. Nov 20, 2015 the paper highlights throughout examples of the organisational use of theories of change, each of which attempts to go some way towards addressing the criticisms of the approach to date. Letter from the administrator i am pleased to present usaids. Theory of change toc is a specific type of methodology for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in companies, philanthropy, notforprofit and government sectors to promote social change. Theories of change and indicator development in conflict management and mitigation 1 introduction this report presents background information and key content related to the usaid sponsored workshop on theories of change indicator development that was held december 1415, 2009, at. A theory of change is designed with a series of change pathways that result in desired outcomes. A theory of change is often presented as a diagram showing activities and outcomes, but it does not have to be. United states agency for international development usaid. Guidan e and methodology written and edited by jennifer himmelstein, jacob gray, mandana nikhai and daniel sumner acknowledgements theory of change adaptive learning and validation talv is a project, funded by usaidfood for peace, through. Building resilience to recurrent crisis usaid policy and.
Many donors now require that projects present a clear plan showing how project activities lead to specific outcomes and that there is consistency in how. A theory of change toc of a project intervention describes the processes of change by outlining the causal pathways from outputs goods and. This framework enables crs programs to segment farmers within target communities. The project is based on the theory that recruitment and retention of newly diagnosed people living with hiv plhiv into care and support groups will reduce the high rate of loss to follow up between the time of diagnosis and the commencement of art. Agency for international developments usaid office of food for peace ffp funds development activities with an objective to. Each outcome is linked to one or several actions, revealing the complex web of activity required to bring about real and lasting social change. Building human resources for supply chain management. Introducing ideals new learning materials for theory of change development. To begin this process, eccn researchers sought to establish a baseline of the types of theories of change used in usaid solicitations in the early years and. Usaid automated directives system ads chapter 201 on planning. Using a theory of change for collaboration, learning and adaptation. You can use different techniques to match your communitys tolerance for planning versus doing. Guidance and methodology 3 overview toc and a toc based project theory of change in a development project background what is a theory of change.
Facilitators guide and all accompanying materials, we present one method that does its best to align to the requirements of creating a development hypothesis for development food security activities dfsa funded by usaids office of food for peace ffp. The term theory of change is probably the most popular expression used in. Theory of change statement theory of change statement if girls and boys receive prevention and response services for violence against children, including gender based violence, and if girls receive prevention and care to address harmful practices such as fgmc and child marriage, and if girls and. Theory of change interacts with many other elements of project and program design, which. Theory of change was graciously provided by the united states agency for international development usaid through the usaid global health supply chain programprocurement and supply management ghscpsm project, task order 3 prh and the people that deliver initiative. There is no perfect example, as all theories of change should vary depending on the views of those. An analysis of theories of change in usaid solicitations. Country development cooperation strategy nepal archive. As development practitioners, we are generally pretty good at identifying what changes we believe need. The program cycle is usaids operational model for planning, implementing, assessing, and adapting development programming in a given region or country. The theory of change, then, is a tool that can be used to explain and articulate the logical connection between a lower level result and a higher level result. Lewins threestage model of change2 focuses on the driving forces that facilitate or hinder change, and how those. The overarching goal of usaids country development cooperation strategy cdcs over the next five years is to foster a more democratic, prosperous, and resilient nepal. Baseline study of the enhancing resilience and economic.
This phrase, purportedly coined by kurt lewin in the 1940s and later taken up inter alia by carol weiss and ray pawson resonates well with most evaluators and development practitioners nowadays. Child protection is critical for all child wellbeing. Building human resources for supply chain management theory. Slide presentation promoting toco theory of change online as an accessible, timesaving means of capturing, sharing, and communicating theories of. Theories of change, which are increasingly in demand by funders, explain how and why a desired change is expected to happen through a project, and how the change is measured. The central tenet of the selfreliance theory of change is that country commitment and capacity to plan, finance and manage the development journey are key, mutually reinforcing aspects that largely determine a countrys selfreliance. Service delivery, equity, safety, institutional capacity development, and context analysis. This overarching theory of change summarizes how concrete actions that. This document provides examples of theories of change of different types. It also analyses possibilities for taking these principles forward in light of the results agenda. The contents do not necessarily reflect the views of usaid or the united states government. Vsos global theory of change provides the basis for informing our global results framework, monitoring and evaluation, research, strategy and communications. Theory of change food and nutrition technical assistance iii project.
Results framework rf program cycle project starter. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views, analysis, or policies of iie or usaid, nor does any mention of trade names. A hypothesized series of changes that are expected to occur in a given context as the result of specific actions. Outcomes an outcome is a state or condition that does not currently exist but must be in place for the project to achieve the longterm goal.
Using theories of change in international development. Introduction in 2011, the united states agency for international development usaid initiated a bold new education strategy to better. Usaid adapts its approach for crisis and conflict settings to create safe learning environments while breaking down the barriers that prevent children from pursuing an education. Use of theory of change in project evaluations 1 introduction.221 1326 212 594 410 661 1360 1014 71 271 1386 1220 112 495 539 1010 968 551 348 560 284 621 84 809 1111 230 350 296 570 49 169 436 832 1521 1162 628 388 46 185 14 1185 928